The opposite process is called reduction, which occurs when there is a gain of electrons or the oxidation state of an atom, molecule, or ion decreases. While the addition of oxygen to a compound typically meets the criteria of electron loss and an increase in the oxidation state, the definition of oxidation was expanded to include other types of chemical reactions.Electrochemical reactions are great examples of oxidation reactions.
Although aerobic glycolysis is often found in malignant tumors, OXPHOS still contributes to energy production in cancers, and may play a major role in energy production in some cancers (8). If you've ever watched a candle burn, you've seen oxidation.Rust is oxygen reacting with iron, and both burning and breathing involve oxygen reacting with carbon to free up energy stored in chemical bonds.However, one of the metabolic features of cancer cells is to avidly take up glucose for aerobic glycolysis.This inefficient pathway for energy production in cancer cells was first described by German scientist Otto Warburg in the 1920s, and is also known as the Warburg effect (1).Many metals oxidize, so it's useful to recognize the form of the equation: Once the electron was discovered and chemical reactions could be explained, scientists realized oxidation and reduction occur together, with one species losing electrons (oxidized) and another gaining electrons (reduced).
A type of chemical reaction in which oxidation and reduction occurs is called a redox reaction, which stands for reduction-oxidation.
Aerobic glycolysis in many cancers is a result driven by various factors, such as activation of oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressors, the hypoxic microenvironment, mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) mutation and the tissue of origin.
Cancers are extremely heterogeneous diseases and each cancer has its individual metabolic features.
Understanding the features and complexity of the cancer energy metabolism will help to develop new approaches in early diagnosis and effectively target therapy of cancer.
Introduction Relationships between glycolysis and OXPHOS are cooperative and competitive Cancer cells have a diversity of energy production pathways Alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressors drive cancer cells to aerobic glycolysis Conclusion Energy consumption from metabolic activities in normal cells relies primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which is efficient and generates more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) than glycolysis.
Warburg originally proposed that the aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells was due to a permanent impairment of mitochondrial OXPHOS.