Less speculative is how this text was understood in the nineteenth century.Of course, ‘unnatural’ still was used in many ways, but in Victorian England (and I think elsewhere too), in the context of hermaphrodites it was indeed read as a reference to deviant sexuality.
After 1500, as European knowledge about the rest of the world changed dramatically, we see some of the monstrous races migrate; the most famous example are perhaps the Amazons, sometimes located in Asia, sometimes in Africa, but since the 16th century also thought to be found at the river which was named after them (see Fig. Hermaphrodites in early modern times were said to be common in the Americas, and especially by Francesco Coreal (known only from the French translation – it is not quite clear whether there really was a Spanish original; see Fig. 4) shows Hermaphrodites as nude humans with double genitalia and a double breast; this largely corresponds to the conventionally, vertically split depiction of hermaphrodites in medieval and early modern art. 4 according to the edition (Westrem 2001, 379) reads: ), it is not quite clear what this means.Augustine, for example, in his mentions Hermaphrodites when discussing the montrous races as found in pre-Christian natural history (see https://intersex.hypotheses.org/1487).Or, to take another example, more than a millenium later Hartmann Schedel in his famous Chronicle depicts various monstrous races, including (see Fig. Other examples from ancient, medieval and early modern times could be added.This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by English Heritage. side of the Bishop's Cloister, and destroyed by Bishop Egerton in 1737. of (45), is of three storeys, timber-framed and with a later brick front; the roofs are tiled. There are few remains of the town wall or castle, and the principal surviving monuments are the Cathedral with its subsidiary buildings, All Saints and St. There are some much-altered remains of the Black Friars Priory and a series of interesting almshouses. Ethelbert (Plates 108, 109, 113) and subsidiary buildings stand on the S. The cathedral is built almost entirely of the local sandstone (Old Red Sandstone) mainly of a reddish colour but with lighter coloured beds. room, on the ground floor, has chamfered ceiling-beams and plaster panels with cherub-heads. Thanks to digitisation projects like that of the British Library, it has become much easier to study these maps, or simply enjoy looking at them; have a look here if you like (and come back later).
Among other things, the was an important source for any knowledge concerning these beings).
Aisle of the presbytery; with it was reconstructed the adjoining bay of vaulting in the aisle. This is indicated by the preamble of a papal bull of 1319 which refers to a sumptuous building, which the dean and chapter had some time since erected on an ancient foundation, which was thought to be firm and solid but which then threatened ruin. tower has been entirely destroyed, but the corresponding wall of the S. walls are still perfectly apparent, the walls being 6½ ft. thick above an internal offset which is still visible on the E. face, apparently all modern restoration; the corresponding orders of the responds are alternately shafted and square, with a pair of half-round shafts on the internal reveal; these shafts have moulded bases and carved capitals, but though the responds are partly original the capitals are all modern (the ancient capitals are preserved loose in the S. transept) and the bases also, except the inner shaft-bases on both sides, which have curious cable-enrichments and a crude foliate ornament and are of early section; the bases on the E. The cellar is perhaps of late mediæval date and has stone walls and a central octagonal column with a moulded capital. The staircase, from the first to the second floor, is original and has heavy moulded rails and strings, turned balusters and square newels.
The transept was perhaps completed under Bishop John le Breton (1269–75). The measures taken to support the tower included the insertion of two sub-arches and a wall under the N. arches of the crossing, the blocking of the arch at the E. aisle of the nave and the partial re-casing of the tower-piers. transept was re-erected immediately after the death of Bishop John Trevenant (1389–1404), and the vault of the same transept and probably the former vault under the central tower were added later in the same century. window of the nave was inserted by Precentor William Lochard (d. Other 15th-century additions of uncertain date include the former E. The outer , generally attributed to Bishop Charles Booth, (1516–35) was probably begun by his predecessor Richard Mayhew (1504–16) as it was certainly completed before 1519, the date on a small adjoining doorway the architectural details of which are cut into the pre-existing work of the outer porch. walls stood over the two arches opening from the aisles into the apses and are still carried up, of the original thickness, well above the adjoining aisle-roofs; they are now finished with a plain raking coping. tower is still represented by its chamfered plinth and clasping S. buttress, underlying the existing 14th-century wall; this plinth shows that the S. side of the modern reredos are also original, that on the N. of (34), is of three storeys with cellars; the walls are of timber-framing and brick and the roofs are tiled. 1 at the corner of Palace Yard, is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are timber-framed and the roofs are covered with slates.
) attract a lot of attention, scholarly and popular, and rightly so.
Ranging from the very simple T/O maps which show little else than the world divided into three parts (Asia, Africa, Europe) to giant, highly complex maps like the famous Ebstorf Map, they have a lot to offer.
In fact, an important comment-cum-edition of the Hereford Map (for a long time used in scholarship), that of William Lathan Bevan and Henry Wright Phillott, shows precisely this. Bevan (1821-1908) gave ample references for all elements of the Hereford Map, including the monstrous races.