Most accurate form of radiometric dating
Historically, these are also known as alpha, gamma, and beta decays, respectively.
There is a fairly well-known example of chemical state affecting electron capture activity.That is, electrons can move closer to or farther away from the nucleus depending on the chemical bonds.This affects the coulomb barrier involved in Alpha decay, and therefore changes the height and width of the barrier through which the alpha particle must tunnel.In some cases radioactive decay itself can be observed and measured in distant galaxies when a supernova explodes and ejects unstable nuclei.There are a few effects that can alter radioactive half-lives, but they are mostly well understood, and in any case would not materially affect the radiometric dating results.There are a number of implausible assumptions involved in radiometric dating with respect to long time periods.
One key assumption is that the initial quantity of the parent element can be determined.
The effect of this on alpha decay, which is the most common decay mode in radiometric dating, is utterly insignificant.
There is another effect that takes place in the "electron capture" type of Beta decay.
The second way that a nucleus could be disrupted is by particles striking it.
However, the nucleus has a strong positive charge and the electron shells have a strong negative charge. Those that can decay are mesons and baryons, which include protons and neutrons; although decays can involve other particles such as photons, electrons, positrons, and neutrinos.
Radiometric dating is a method of determining the age of an artifact by assuming that on average decay rates have been constant (see below for the flaws in that assumption) and measuring the amount of radioactive decay that has occurred.