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For example, the rational addiction model for cigarette use posits that individuals may recognize the addictive nature of choices they make, but still make them because the immediate gains from the activity exceed any costs .
Of US adults and those aged 18–29, respectively, 88% and 99% use the Internet [ Parents and educators may not be aware of the apps that children and teens use regularly or may not be aware of the risks involved.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other psychiatric disorders have also been correlated with PIU, and youth with ADHD and PIU are more at risk for negative effects on sleep, academic achievement, and attention/cognition , it can be challenging for parents, teachers, and clinicians to differentiate between normal and problematic online activity.In addition, adolescents often engage in media multitasking, with more than 50% engaging in multiple media activities at a given time, such as being online and watching TV [ Vignette 1. Art is a 17-year-old male who is texting a lot to others about hobbies, recent events, and morbid thoughts.Tameka continues to maintain her grades, but her family wants to know “How much is too much? In this scenario, Tameka’s family is concerned about Tameka’s Internet use, but it has not affected her grades (yet).The clinician or school counselor might consider screening for problematic Internet use (PIU) using the PRIUSS-3 and if Tameka scores a 3 or higher, she could then be evaluated with the PRIUSS-18 to identify whether she may have a problematic Internet use (PIU) syndrome.Extrinsic variables that influence technology usage include perceived ease of use and usefulness, Internet system design, and the emotional states and cognitions that are promoted by the system.
The combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators may lead to overuse at an elevated level .
Youth are also open to the use of technology for the assessment and interventions in healthcare, such as web-based technologies which support youth with depressive symptoms .
Despite these potential benefits, concerns about media use—especially excess use—of television and computer games have arisen due to potential changes in mood, promotion of sedentary lifestyles, withdrawal from other activities, and severely impaired sleep patterns .
Privacy and location settings may make them more vulnerable to stalking, cyberbullying, exposure to adult content, or other dangers.
Some current popular social media venues and apps include: ].
Evidence suggests that technology may have addictive properties due to both intrinsic and extrinsic variables .