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The flint tool artefacts have been discovered at Yiron, the oldest stone tools found anywhere outside Africa.
It contains sites sacred to Judaism, Samaritanism, Christianity, Islam, Druze and the Bahá'í Faith.This evolved into the Phoenician alphabet from which all modern alphabetical writing systems are descended.The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was one of the first to develop and evidence of its use exists from about 1000 BCE (see the Gezer calendar), the language spoken was probably Biblical Hebrew.During the 2nd millennium BCE, Canaan, part of which later became known as Israel, was dominated by the New Kingdom of Egypt from c.1550 to c. The earliest recorded battle in history took place in 1457 BCE, at Megiddo (known in Greek as Armageddon), between Canaanite forces and those of Pharoh Thutmose III.The Canaanites left no written history, but Thutmose's scribe, Tjaneni recorded the battle. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," representing the first instance of the name in the historical record.Other notable Paleolithic sites include caves Qesem and Manot.
The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominids, who lived in northern Israel 120,000 years ago.
During World War I, the British government publicly committed to create a Jewish National Home and was granted a Mandate to rule Palestine by the League of Nations for this purpose.
A rival Arab nationalism also claimed rights over the former Ottoman territories and sought to prevent Jewish migration into Palestine, leading to growing Arab–Jewish tensions.
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In 1993, Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization, followed by establishment of the Palestinian National Authority and in 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed.